UP PG Medical Admission 2019 - Counselling, Allotment, Cutoff


Top Govt and Pvt MBBS Colleges in UP, with the SeatMatrix and cutoff

After the medical results are out there are a lot of anxieties going on among the students regarding the seat matrix of colleges and the seat cutoffs. The expectations of the students have been in a very changing mode. Students are basically having lots of uncertainty about which colleges to apply and which not. How to complete the counseling process of NEET, AIIMS, etc. Hence, with the declaration of the results, the counseling process has begun rapidly. As there is the number of colleges hence would obviously prepare themselves for a good college at a good place. And no doubt choosing Uttar Pradesh as a place to complete your Medical wouldn't at all be a bad option. To guide you in a perfect and a more broader way we have now gathered some of the best medical colleges in Uttar Pradesh who offers MBBS course. The cut off for the admission may vary from college to college. As at the end of the day what matters is your score and rank.

As per NIRF Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences is marked as the top Medical College in the state of Uttar Pradesh. 

The seat matrix for that is:

In the NIRF list then comes King George`s Medical University

The seat matrix for that is:

The NEET-UG 2018 cut-off for MBBS seats falling under the All India Quota allotted through the common counseling conducted by Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) are mentioned below:

Top Government Medical Colleges : 

                                                 -NEET RanksNEET MarksNEET Ranks
NEET Marks
NEET Ranks
NEET Marks
NEET Ranks
NEET Marks
King George's Medical college
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College5578183647729457907106319480218
Sarojini Naidu Medical College7975196857428973427
Motilal Nehru Medical College6285127693929563425195202591285
Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College7229119849525369404324296716229

Top Private Medical Colleges :

                              -NEET RankNEET Marks
ERA Lucknow Medical College
Shriram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences89583385
Muzaffarnagar Institute of Medical Sciences209943280
Rohilkhand Medical College305006225
Rama Medical College and Hospital319173218

We have mentioned some Top Colleges name in the above list with their seat matrix and cut-off varying in category wise. You may take reference from here and apply in the respective colleges for getting admission in any of these reputable colleges.

Read also : NEET 2019 Counselling Starts, Check Seat Matrix for 2019 Session

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What are the changes made in NEET 2019? NEET UG 20...

After reviewing and analysing many experimental and significant proposals in the field of education, the Government took a major move to set up National Testing Agency (NTA) in a hope of increasing efficiency and transparency in country’s educational system. NTA is a statutory body, which has been approved by the Union Cabinet for conducting entrance examinations of JEE, NEET, CTET, UGC NET, etc. from the end of 2018 onwards. Till date, these exams were conducted by The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).  NEET is the only national-level medical entrance exam. It is organized for providing admission in all Indian Medical colleges offering the courses in MBBS, BDS & Ayush.  Changes introduced in NEET 2019 Earlier it was decided that the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) will be conducted twice a year in online mode from 2019. Then the ministry raised concerned that conducting NEET twice a year may put additional pressure on students on the other hand students from the rural areas may be impacted if they conduct only a computer-based exam. So, the government rolled back the decision. The exam will now be held once in a year and in the pen-and-paper mode and not online.  NTA will set up 3,000 practice centres for NEET UG examination all over the country. Which will function on Saturdays and Sundays & candidates will get around an hour to practice. NTA will start their free coaching centres for NEET aspirants. It may start functioning from May 2019. New Changes Introduced the candidates of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana need not have to submit Self Declaration form anymore because they have joined 15% All India Quota scheme.  Aadhaar Card is not mandatory to fill the NEET Application. Any government ID proof can be used to apply for the exam. Indian candidates those want to pursue MBBS/BDS in foreign nationals, they are not allowed to move abroad to study if they have registered for NEET and could not qualify.  The attempt limit has been removed from the last year. Now, candidates may attempt the NEET until the age limit as per their categories. NIOS or State Open School or private candidates’ are not eligible to appear NEET exam. There will be one set for question paper in all languages. As per officials, the exam will be bilingual (except language chosen in English). RELATED LINKS NEET Entrance details 8 Keys to Crack Medical Entrance Exams Allied Healthcare Services Without Having a MBBS/BDS Degree Medicine as a Career: 5 Things to Know Career in Radiology Career Prospects beyond Medical and Engineerin

NEET preparation from class 11: Books, syllabus...

Jumping from class 10th to 11th is completely a different feeling and also Class 11th is an ideal time to start your journey towards your aim of life and the profession in which you want to see yourself in future.  If you are aspiring to become a doctor and just entered class 11th then this is the right time for you to start your preparation to crack the medical entrance exams in the first attempt.  Because lakhs of students write the medical entrance test every year in India and only a few of them get a chance to book an MBBS/BDS seat for them. So, follow these steps from the beginning for sure success. 1. Know your Syllabus First of all, you should know the syllabus and exam pattern for the exam you are preparing for. All the medical exams have three subjects: Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. You have to focus on your Science subject from the very beginning of Class 11th. Understand all the concepts in details and solve sufficient questions. This will clear your basics and you will be able to easily understand the detailed explanation of the concepts in Class 12th and medical entrance study materials too. The syllabus for the entrance tests is drawn from CBSE for Class XI and XII. So, you can crack the exam if you read and understand each and every concept thoroughly. Check NEET 2019 Exam Pattern here!!  2. Treat NCERT textbooks as your holy books Learn and memorize your NCERT biology, Physics, and Chemistry books religiously.    From the books of 11th and 12th Biology, nearly 70-80% questions are expected in the exam. So, each and every single line of these books are important. Along with this read the theoretical part and solve every MCQs from the NCERT books of physics and chemistry. After completing these books you may go for other books for reference.  3. Understand the concepts then memorize   First, understand the theory and its concept then only it will be easier for you to solve the problems. 4. Prepare Time-table to study for NEET Studying 4-5 hours daily apart from coaching classes is very essential. Rest adjust your time according to your capability on how fast you learn and memorize things but you should study with full concentration whenever you study. Make a timetable and stick to it and remove all unnecessary distractions while studying. 5. Identify your strength and weakness Try to identify which chapters of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology you find easy and which one difficult.  This will help you plan your preparation accordingly so that you can improve gradually. Cracking exams like NEET needs one to play to their strengths. 6. Make notes Always make notes of important points. Do not rely on only reading. Note down the important formulas, definitions, and equations for better understanding. 7. Learn the art of Time Management Time management is the vital factor to play well in any kind of competitive exam. You have to read, understand and analyse and answer the questions within a time constraint. If you are not able to manage your time properly, you won’t be able to convert your knowledge into marks no matter how academically strong you are. So you start practicing for this right from the beginning. Solve as many as mock test series you can so that it would be easier for you to answer questions within the limited time period in the exam. 8. Do not take the stress Do not take stress at all. Being stressful hampers the performance as well as health. Therefore, be confident and be persistent. Make plans, distribute your time accordingly so that you would be able to finish your syllabus and find time for revision. 9. Revision is the key to success We tend to forget things with time if we don’t stay in touch with those. So a periodic revision i.e. daily, weekly and monthly revision is must. Always revise important points, MCQs before sleeping. 10. Take advice When we are new in something we seek guidance and when we become experienced we provide guidance to someone else.  So never hesitate to seek guidance from others. You can talk to your parents, teachers, seniors, elder brothers and sisters who have attempted/ cleared such the exams. Also read: What are the changes made in NEET 2019? NEET UG 2019, Exam Pattern, Syllabus Allied healthcare services: A Scope to associate with healthcare sector without having a MBBS/BDS Degree

Best Books for NEET ...

Books are the best friends and guide for every successful person. Earlier there were limited books so there was a limited option in the hands of students. Nowadays thousands of books on the same subject are available in the market. So, selecting the best book has become a difficult task these days. Even it is not possible for every student to purchase 8-10 books to do experimentation. Even following 4-5 books at a time may make you confused and stressed. For NEET aspirants time is very less for preparation and so many things to learn and memorize. So, in this article, we are providing a list of best books from each subject to make your selection process easier.  NCERT BooksA major portion of NEET Syllabus is covered in the CBSE 11th and 12th board syllabus. Therefore, every student should complete the NCERT books first to understand and clear various concepts. Still, there are certain topics and concepts which the NCERT books do not cover. Hence, in order to gain command over those topics, candidates will need some reference books for NEET.Some of the best reference books for BiologyBiology section includes 90 questions which carry 360 marks and it goes without saying that candidates should pay more attention to this section as it carries more weightage. Some of the best reference books for Biology are-NCERT Biology Class XI and Class XII textbooksObjective Biology by DineshTrueman’s Biology – Vol 1 and Vol 2Trueman’s Objective Biology for NEET- M.P TyagiObjective Biology by DineshObjective Botany by AnsariComplete NEET guide: BiologyPradeep Publication’s BiologyGRB Bathla publications for Biology40 Days Biology for NEET- S. ChakravartySC Verma Biology books Some of the best reference books for physicsThe physics section being the toughest of all the sections as stated by the experts and toppers, it requires extensive knowledge about each and every topic. The section comprises 45 questions which carry 180 marksNCERT Physics Class XI & Class XIIConcepts of Physics by H. C. VermaObjective Physics by Pramod Agarwal (For practicing problems in mechanics and rotational dynamics. Objective Physics by DC PandeyFundamentals of Physics by Halliday, Resnick and Walker (For optics, waves, and electromagnetism)Fundamental Physics by PradeepProblems in General Physics by IE Irodov Some of the best reference books for chemistryChemistry includes 45 questions which carry 180 marks wherein the aspirants will get three sections- Organic, Inorganic and Physical.  Chemistry includes three sections which are physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and inorganic chemistry. To solve numerical part students can follow-NCERT (Textbook) Chemistry – Class 11 & 12Physical Chemistry by O.P. Tandon Physical Chemistry by P. BahadurPractice book by N Awasthi (Physical) For organic chemistry students can follow-NCERT (Textbook) Chemistry – Class 11 & 12Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd (For reaction mechanisms) Organic Chemistry by O.P. Tandon Organic Chemistry Objective by Arihant (for practicing problems)Practice book by MS Chauhan (Organic)For Inorganic chemistry students can referInorganic Chemistry by O.P. TandonConcise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee   (For Chemical Bonding, Atomic Structure and Coordination Chemistry)Practise books by VK Jaiswal (Inorganic)Read Also: NEET preparation from class 11: Books, syllabusRead Also: What are the changes made in NEET 2019? NEET UG 2019, Exam Pattern, Syllabus

8 Keys to crack Medical Entrance exams at first at...

Every year, lakhs of students write the medical entrance test in India, out of which only a few hundred are able to achieve their goals. If you are aspiring to become a doctor and just entered class 11th then this is the right time for you to start your preparation to crack the medical entrance exams in the first attempt.  But still wondering how to start your preparation for NEET?? This article may help you to achieve your dream. Before getting into the details of how to start preparing for medical entrances, let’s have an overview of the top medical entrance examinations in India. The three major entrance exams conducted in India are NEET, AIIMS, and JIPMAR. Apart from there are no other entrance exams for MBBS in India.   National Eligibility and Entrance Test or NEET is the one examination which would be considered for filling about 54,000 medical seats across the country. As per the Supreme Court’s order in 2016, NEET would be the only examination to fill the All India Quota Seats as well as the State Level Quota seats across the country. This examination is also valid for applying to private colleges across the country. From 2019 onwards NEET will be conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA).   The All India Institute of Medical Sciences ( AIIMS) MBBS Entrance Examination is a national level undergraduate medical entrance exam conducted by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, for admissions to MBBS programmes offered in AIIMS, New Delhi and the eight other AIIMS campuses located at Delhi Extension Jhajjar, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Jodhpur, Patna, Raipur, Rishikesh. AIIMS MBBS entrance will be considered for providing admission in 707 MBBS seats offered by seven different AIIMS institutions.   JIPMER is a national level entrance exam to get admission in UG medical MBBS courses in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry (JIPMER) which also conducts the exam every year. Admissions to JIPMER colleges in Puducherry and Karaikal is not done on the basis of National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET). JIPMER has 200 seats, including 50 in its Karaikal (a region of Puducherry) branch. JIPMER and AIIMS conduct their own entrance exams and are, therefore, exempted from National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (UG) for admission to MBBS courses.   Got a brief idea about all the medical entrances??? Now, let’s discuss the preparation strategy. 1. Know your Syllabus- First of all, you should know the syllabus and exam pattern of the exam you are preparing for. All the medical exams have three subjects: Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. You have to focus on your Science subject from the very beginning of Class 11th. Understand all the concepts in details and solve sufficient questions. This will clear your basics and you will be able to easily understand the detailed explanation of the concepts in Class 12th and medical entrance study materials too. The syllabus for the entrance tests is drawn from CBSE for Class XI and XII. So, you can crack the exam if you read and understand each and every concept thoroughly. Top Entrance Exams for Medical Students    NEET UG       AIIMS MBBS   JIPMER MBBS     PGIMER        NEET PG    2. Identify your strength and weakness- Try to identify which chapters of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology you find easy and which one difficult.  This will help you plan your preparation accordingly so that you can improve gradually. Cracking exams like NEET needs one to play to their strengths. 3. Make notes- Always make notes of important points. Do not rely on only reading. Note down the important formulas, definitions, and equations for better understanding. 4. Learn the art of Time Management- Time management is the vital factor to play well in any kind of competitive exam. You have to read, understand and analyze and answer the questions within a time constraint. If you are not able to manage your time properly, you won’t be able to convert your knowledge into marks no matter how academically strong you are. So you start practicing for this right from the beginning. Solve as many as mock test series you can so that it would be easier for you to answer questions within the limited time period in the exam. 5. Do not take stress- Do not take stress at all. Being stressful hampers the performance as well as health. Therefore, be confident and be persistent. Make plans, distribute your time accordingly so that you would be able to finish your syllabus and find time for revision. 6.  Take advice- When we are new in something we seek guidance and when we become experienced we provide guidance to someone else.  So never hesitate to seek guidance from others. You can talk to your parents, teachers, seniors, elder brothers and sisters who have attempted/ cleared such the exams. 7. Practice previous year question papers and supplementary materials- Try to gather the best medical entrance preparation materials, go through them all and finally stick to a few of them which seems suitable for you. Because following a lot of study materials may make your brain confused. You can collect these materials from the market or the internet. Collect previous year question paper and analyses the pattern of the question. Focus on the frequently asked questions, topics and pattern. 8.  Do not fall for guesswork- Many candidates have the tendency of doing guesswork for solving questions they don’t know. In medical entrance exams, there is negative marking for every wrong answer. It is recommended to leave a question completely if you do not know the right answer. This is one of the most important tips to crack NEET or any other medical entrance. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. What are the different types of medical entrance examinations conducted in India? Answer. There are mainly 3 medical entrances that are been conducted on the all-India basis- All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Jawaharlal Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) and National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET). Q2. Is there negative marking in medical entrance exams? Answer. Yes, there is the deduction of marks for each incorrect answer in these three entrances. In both NEET and JIPMER, 1 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer whereas in AIIMS 1/3rd marks will be deducted for each incorrect answer. Q3. What is the age limit for applying for the medical entrance exams? Answer. The minimum age limit for applying NEET, JIPMER, and AIIMS is 17 years, whereas the maximum limit for NEET is 25 years. There is no maximum age limit for JIPMER or AIIMS. Moreover, there is the relaxation of 5 years for SC/ST/OBC on their upper age limit for NEET. Q4. How many times can I attempt for medical entrances? Answer. There is no attempt limit for AIIMS and JIPMER whereas the attempt limit for General/OBC 9 times and 14 times for SC/ST in NEET. Q5. Who is the conducting these medical entrance exams? Answer. Earlier CBSE used to conduct the NEET exams across India but NTA will be conducting this exam twice every year from 2019 onwards. JIPMER Puducherry conducts the JIPMER entrance exam whereas AIIMS Delhi conducts the AIIMS entrances. Q6. Will I be able to take admissions in AIIMS after clearing NEET? Answer. No, for getting admissions in AIIMS, one has to clear AIIMS entrance examination conducted separately. Q7. What is the syllabus for the medical exams? Answer. The syllabus is set by the Medical Council of India (MCI). The questions cover up mainly the syllabus of CBSE NCERT (class 11 & 12) books. Q8. I completed class 12 from the National Institute of Open Schooling/State Open School. I am ineligible for NEET (UG) 2018. Is there any other way? Answer: NEET 2018 eligibility has been announced by MCI through the information bulletin. Candidates finishing class 12 from Open School are advised to strictly follow instructions issued by the MCI. CBSE will have no role in this. So if CBSE is contacted, candidates are almost certain to be turned down. Candidates must have scored 50% have studied Physics, Chemistry, and Biology with English (Core) for 2 years continuously. Q9. There are 15% All India Quota Seats, who all can appear for NEET-UG through this? Answer: Non-Resident Indians (NRIs), Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs), Indian Nationals, Overseas Citizens of India, and Foreign Nationals are eligible to apply in NEET-UG through the 15% All India Quota Seats. RELATED LINK Career in Radiology and its Importance NEET preparation from class 11 NEET Reservation Policy and Criteria 2019 Allied healthcare services Best Books for NEET NEET Cut off 2019 5 Things to Do Before Choosing Medicine as a career NEET PG 2019: Rank, Cut Off & Reservation Criteria AIIMS MBBS Cut Off 2019 Changes made in NEET 2019 Career Prospects beyond Medical and Engineering NEET Exam Pattern 2019 NEET 2019 Syllabus NEET UG 2019 Application Form Bachelor Of Medicine Bachelor Of Surgery (MBBS) Anaesthesiology Ophthalmology General Surgery

NEET Exam Pattern 2019: Marking scheme, Score calc...

The National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) UG which used to be conducted by CBSE till 2018 will be conducted by the NTA from 2019 onwards. By qualifying NEET (UG), the students can get admission to MBBS/BDS Courses in India in Medical/Dental Colleges run with the approval of Medical Council of India/Dental Council of India under the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India except for the institutions established through an Act of Parliament i.e. AIIMS and JIPMER Puducherry.The responsibility of the NTA will limited to the conduct of the entrance examination, declaration of result and providing All India Rank to the Directorate General Health Services, Government of India for the conduct of counselling for 15% All India Quota Seats and for supplying the result to state/other Counselling Authorities.NEET Exam Pattern 2019In 2019 NEET will be conducted on 5th May 2019. Here is the exam pattern of NEET 2019Exam Mode offline mode (paper based)Total marks 720Number of Question 180 questions in a single question paperMarking scheme + 4 for correct answer, -1 for incorrect answerType of Question   objective type questions with multiple choices Exam Duration 3 hoursSubjects Physics, Chemistry, Botany and ZoologyLanguages of Question PaperEnglish, Hindi, Tamil, Assamese, Oriya, Kannada, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Urdu, and Telugu.Question Pattern and Mark DistributionSubject   No. of QuestionsMaximum MarksPhysics                45 180Chemistry45180Zoology 45180Botany    45180Total  720Marking SchemeThe question paper will bear total 720 maximum marks (180*4).4 marks will be awarded for each correct answer and one mark will be deducted for each incorrect response.No marks will be awarded for unanswered questions.Changing answer is not allowed.Multiple answers will be considered as incorrect response and will be negatively marked.NOTE: Candidates should use only blue/black ball point pen to mark their answers.NEET Score Calculation 2019Total number of correct answers X 4 – Total number of incorrect answers X 1Medium/ Language of Question PapersThe question paper will be available in Hindi and English all over India.The candidates can also ask for Question Paper in any of the given languages such as English, Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, Urdu & Kannada.The candidate choosing a vernacular language would be allotted the centres as per the list.The option of the medium of question paper can be opted during form filling process. Once the option is exercised cannot be changed latter. English version will be treated as final in case of any ambiguity in translation of any of the questionsFollowing is the list of languages and the centers/cities where they are available-Language                                        cities of the exam centreEnglish and Hindi Medium All Examination CentersEnglish & Urdu  All Examination CentresEnglish & Assamese  AssamEnglish & Bengali West Bengal and TripuraEnglish & Marathi MaharashtraEnglish & Gujarati Gujarat, Daman, Dadra & Nagar HaveliEnglish & Odia OdishaEnglish & Tamil Tamil NaduEnglish & Telugu Andhra Pradesh & TelanganaEnglish & Kannada KarnatakaRead More here: 8 Keys to crack Medical Entrance exams at first attemptNEET preparation from class 11: Books, syllabusBest Books for NEETWhat are the changes made in NEET 2019? NEET UG 2019, Exam Pattern, Syllabus5 Things to Do Before Choosing Medicine as a careerCareer Prospects beyond Medical and EngineeringAllied healthcare services: A Scope to associate with healthcare sector without having a MBBS/BDS DegreeNEET UG 2019AIIMS MBBSJIPMER MBBS

NEET 2019 Syllabus...

The National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test (NEET) UG which used to be conducted by CBSE till 2018 will be conducted by the NTA from 2019 onwards. By qualifying NEET (UG), the students can get admission to MBBS/BDS Courses in India in Medical/Dental Colleges run with the approval of Medical Council of India/Dental Council of India under the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare except AIIMS and JIPMER Puducherry. As per MHRD’s announcements, syllabus for NEET shall remain the same as last year. The syllabus was released by the Medical Council of India in the year 2013 and ever since, the same is being followed. Students should cover all topics as per the official syllabus in order to qualify the exams with flying colours.  Here is the complete syllabus for NEET 2019 for physics, chemistry and biology.  NEET Syllabus 2019 for Physics Class XI Class XII  Physical world and measurement Electrostatics Kinematics Current Electricity Laws of Motion Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Work, Energy and Power Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Electromagnetic Waves Gravitation Optics Properties of Bulk Matter Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation Thermodynamics Atoms and Nuclei Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Electronic Devices Oscillations and Waves   NEET Syllabus 2019 for Chemistry Class XI Class XII Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Solid State Structure of Atom Solutions Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Electrochemistry Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Chemical Kinetics States of Matter: Gases and Liquids Surface Chemistry Thermodynamics General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Equilibrium p-Block Elements Redox Reactions d and f Block Elements Hydrogen Coordination Compounds s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Some p-Block Elements Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Hydrocarbons Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Environmental Chemistry Biomolecules Polymers Chemistry in Everyday Life NEET Syllabus 2019 for Biology Class XI Class XII Diversity in Living World Reproduction Structural Organization in Animals and Plants Genetics and Evolution Cell Structure and Function Biology and Human Welfare Plant Physiology Biotechnology and Its Applications Human Physiology Ecology and Environment Get the detailed syllabus here. PHYSICS CLASS XI  UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.  Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. UNIT II: Kinematics  Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).  Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.  Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.  Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. UNIT III: Laws of Motion  Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.  Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road,vehicle on banked road). UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power  Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.  Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.  Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.   Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotationalmotions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. UNIT VI: Gravitation Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.  Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter  Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.  Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.  Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops,bubbles and capillary rise. • Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.  Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect. • Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law. UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics  Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.  Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.  Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path. UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves  Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.  Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect. CLASS XII  UNIT I: Electrostatics  Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.  Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)  Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.  Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator. UNIT II: Current Electricity Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. • Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.  Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.  Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.  Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.  Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.  Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.  Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents  Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.  Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillation(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. AC generator and transformer. UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves   Need for displacement current.  Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.  Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. UNIT VI: Optics  Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.   Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.  Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.  Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.  Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens ’ Principle.  Interference, Young’s double whole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.  Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.  Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids. UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation  Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.   Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained). UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei  Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion. UNIT IX: Electronic Devices  Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).Transistor as a switch. CHEMISTRY CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.  Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry. UNIT II: Structure of Atom Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties  Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond. UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids   Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speed (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.  Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations). UNIT VI : Thermodynamics  First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. • Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. • Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction. UNIT VII: Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples). UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions  Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers. UNIT IX: Hydrogen Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure; UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group I and group 2 elements: • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. • Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: • Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. • Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca. UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements  General Introduction to p-Block Elements. • Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.  General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states,trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.  Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses. UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques   General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. • Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.  Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions. UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons- Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.  Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.  Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.  Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity. UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution. CLASS XII  UNIT I: Solid State Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators. UNIT II: Solutions  Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor. UNIT III: Electrochemistry Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion. UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics  Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. UNIT V: Surface Chemistry Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions. UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements  Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron. UNIT VII: p- Block Elements  Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).  Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). • Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).  Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements  General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.  Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.  Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids. UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds  Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems). UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).  Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT. UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers  Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.  Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. • Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses. UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids  Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.  Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses. UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.  Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.  Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. UNIT XIV: Biomolecules  Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.  Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.  Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).   Vitamins- Classification and function.  Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA UNIT XV: Polymers  Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers. UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.  Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action BIOLOGY CLASS XI  UNIT I: Diversity in Living World What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.  Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.  Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).  Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples). UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants  Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).  Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only) UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra-structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.  Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.  B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance. UNIT IV: Plant Physiology Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).  Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.  Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.  Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.  Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism. UNIT V: Human Physiology Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.  Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.  Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.  Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney. Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.  Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.  Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.) CLASS XII  UNIT I: Reproduction  Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.  Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollinationtypes, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation. • Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic, anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).  Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness). UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.  Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.  Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution. UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare  Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.   Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.  Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications  Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents. UNIT V: Ecology and environment  Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.  Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.  Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.  Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.  Read Also: NEET preparation from class 11: Books, syllabus Read Also: Best Books for NEET Read Also: What are the changes made in NEET 2019? 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