atrk JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus



JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus

The National Test Agency (NTA) has released the official Chemistry syllabus of JEE Main 2019. Candidates are advised to check the JEE Main Chemistry syllabus to get an idea about the topics from where the questions are expected to appear in the exam. Engineering aspirants dreaming to crack JEE Main should ensure that they are familiar with the exam syllabus. JEE Main syllabus for Chemistry will be based on the topics covered in Class 10 and Class 12. The JEE Main syllabus for Chemistry gives the section wise break up of units, chapters, and topics. In the chemistry syllabus of JEE Main, there are three sections in total. Section A comprises of Physical Chemistry, Section B consists of topics on Inorganic Chemistry and Section C includes Organic Chemistry. Each section of JEE Main chemistry syllabus mentions in detail the topics which fall under each unit and chapter. Candidates can plan their preparation according to the syllabus for the chemistry of JEE Main 2019. 
JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus
The syllabus for Chemistry is divided into three sections - Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, and Organic Chemistry.
Section A: Physical Chemistry
UNIT 1: Some Basic concepts in Chemistry
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
UNIT 2: States of Matter
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State:
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
Liquid State:
Properties of liquids- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension, and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State:
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
UNIT 3: Atomic Structure
Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of  ? and ?2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, the concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features, the concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, the concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT 5: Chemical Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; ?S of the universe and ?G of the system as criteria for spontaneity, ?Go (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT 6: Solutions
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law - Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT 7: Equilibrium
Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of ?G and ?Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
UNIT 8: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
UNIT 9: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions - Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
UNIT 10: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption - Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting the adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis - Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Section B: Inorganic Chemistry
UNIT 11: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements-atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
UNIT 12: General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; steps involved in the extraction of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical. and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
UNIT 13: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
UNIT 14:  s Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
UNIT 15:  p Block Elements
Group 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p – block elements
Group - 13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group - 14
Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group - 15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group - 16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group - 17
Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group - 18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
UNIT 16: d – and f – Block Elements
Transition Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT 17: Co-ordination Compounds
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
UNIT 18: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution - Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
Section-C: Organic Chemistry
UNIT 19: Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification - Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography - principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis - Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
UNIT 20: Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C ? C - and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond - Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions - Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
UNIT 21: Hydrocarbons
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel - Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
UNIT 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT.
UNIT 23: Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.
Ethers: Structure.
Aldehyde and Ketones
Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of ? - hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic Acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
UNIT 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT 25: Polymers
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization - addition and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polyethene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
UNIT 26: Bio Molecules
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates - Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
Proteins - Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
UNIT 27: Chemistry in Everyday Life
Chemicals in medicines - Analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines - their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common examples.
Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
UNIT 28: Principles Related to Practical Chemistry
Detection of extra elements (N, S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.
Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises - Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations - Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
Anions- CO32-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI-, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base. .
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
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Does engineering study fulfill your sky-high dream...

We get to hear a lot of news boasting about the positive area of every field of life and often ignore the negative aspects it leads to. Ignorance doesn’t solve any problem. You all might have heard about the successful career and high scopes in the field of engineering but you must also grasp some amount of knowledge about the unexplored world before you opt for any field or course. Not only is this important for the students who want to pursue a shining bright career in this field, but even for those who are mid-way in this field and also for those who have already completed this course of study with no job in their favor.People often ponder about the reason that is linked with the increased rate of unemployment in the field of engineering. Despite having a qualified degree and good marks, many students fail to get a job. The main reason for it is the poor education and low standard of the Engineering colleges nowadays. 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5 things to do if you couldn't clear your JEE Main...

From an early age, we start setting our goals and start dreaming about life after our achievement. Little do we realize back then, what will we do if we fail to achieve the same. We never tend to make a backup plan for ourselves . and land up feeling demoralized or dejected at the end.The JEE Main 2018 results were just announced and around 2 lakh cleared the exam of the 14 lakh candidates who had sat for it all over the country. This means that around 12 lakh candidates did not clear JEE Main 2018. If you are one of the 12 lakh candidates who failed to qualify JEE Main this year, there is absolutely nothing to be dejected about! With the increase in the percentage of the reservation quota, it has become even more difficult for the students belonging to the general category to clear their Mains with a good percentage. Today, there are a wide variety of options available for you even if you fail to crack your JEE-Mains.Some solutions to cheer you up are:Was it actually your dream that you have failed to achieve?Ask yourself if engineering is your passion and if you gave everything into this.If you did and it still didn't work out, focus on your other college options. Stick to your passion for studying engineering rather than moping about losing out on the top college dream.If on the other hand, this WAS NOT your passion, and instead your parents' order, rest assured that you have tried your best to make your future all about them and failed.So, take a deep breath and relax, because you just dodged the typical Indian parent induced this-job-is-not-for-me bullet.Other entrance exams you can opt for:Other entrance exams to get into engineering colleges such as WBJEE, COMEDK, and VITEEE are yet to be held. Concentrate on these rather than feeling low and dejected about not clearing JEE Main. Also, make sure you prepare yourself for the counselling processes in private universities.Options apart from engineering to establish a good career:As a Science student, there are other study areas where the course material would be quite similar to engineering. You can study Economics, Statistics or Mathematics.Apart from these science subjects, there are other careers you could choose such as actuarial sciences, management, marketing research, operational research, or banking.In this technology-obsessed world where big data is a treasure trove, data analysts and data statisticians are a big requirement for companies all over the world.Moreover, you always have the option of turning towards the prestigious civil services if you have it in you to take up administrative helms. The civil services exams in India are very tough; be warned that you will need a thorough knowledge of current affairs, and the history and geography of the nation to crack these.You can be an employer instead of an employee:With the gradually changing times, many IIT achievers have taken a forward step to start their work as an entrepreneur and fulfill their dreams. With rising population, India is still facing a great job crunch which could do away with whatever benefits we hoped to get from our demographic dividend (a time when the average population's age in a country is low resulting in rising economy). India will have an average age of just 29 in 2020.If you think you have an idea that could benefit the society, use your skills to turn it into a reality. Being a job-creating entrepreneur could be an extremely challenging, yet rewarding experience.If you still are unable to forget IIT:If getting into one of the IITs means everything to you, if your entire life has been building up to this moment, then not being able to crack the JEE Main can feel like a crushing disaster. But chances are, you feel like this because of the way your mind was modulated since a young age into thinking that this is the only option you have. You can always go for the other choices you have for world-class engineering education.But at times, our heart refuses to listen to reason, doesn't it?In that case, you can take a drop year and prepare for JEE with a fresh mind and perhaps newer and fresher strategies.People are divided on the option of dropping a year. Others refer to take admission in some college and continue their JEE preparations while enrolled there.With the changing job market now and the rising prominence of startups, it is a lesser taboo now to not crack JEE Main than it was around 5-10 years ago.But the number of coaching centres promising a seat in one of the IITs has also risen. This makes every parent (and even candidates) feel that everyone is capable of cracking the JEE Main.The pressure that parents create on students cracks their mind when they fail to crack the entrance exam. Many take the path of ending their own lives, and it is not a surprise because when your brain is that pressurized, it simply doesn't work properly.So, don't let yourself feel low or dejected as this is not the end of the world. Take a time-out and look through the other paths you can take if you fail to crack JEE Main. There are a large number of other options where you can make it big and truly grow as a human instead of obsessing about the IIT tag.Always remember, there are many brilliant people doing incredible things in the world, and barely a tiny handful of them studied in any IIT! Put your heart in what you do and nothing can stop you from succeeding.RELATED LINKSJEE Main crash course 2019, Creating new rays of sunshineTips and tricks to crack JEE MainsEngineering in India and JEE MainJEE Main Eligibility: Age, FAQs, Subject, QualificationJEE Main Chemistry SyllabusJEE Main Physics SyllabusJEE Main Maths SyllabusTrending engineering branches which are highest paid5 tips for choosing your career as Mechanical Engineer

Moulding the future of engineering With 7 new tren...

Technology today has managed to break the monotony of traditional business partnerships and transform it into building blocks for digital ecosystems. Digital adoption is a massive opportunity for companies that leverage the right technologies. Within ten years, full-scale digitization will lead to huge annual global cost savings.Some new adaptions that can help shape the future of engineering are:CONTINUED INDUSTRY DIGITALIZATIONThe Engineering & Construction (E&C) industry is eventually adopting many of the digital technologies including digital sensors, mobile devices, BIM, augmented reality, virtual reality, drones, 3D scanning and printing, autonomous equipment, and advanced building.These technical innovations help companies improve their processes and fundamentally transform how building and projects come to life.As the construction industry shifts towards adopting cloud-based platforms, businesses must quickly develop strong partnerships to prepare for a rapidly growing collaborative network.CLOUD COMPUTINGThe majority of companies have or will be using some aspect of Cloud computing.The future of Cloud computing will straddle both private and public clouds, adding new challenges to the role of IT.The increased use of cloud computing will put a premium on skill sets including those comfortable with API (application programming interface) development and a DevOps (unifying software development and software operation) environment.It will also mean a strategic shift in the mindset of many IT professionals from working with equipment to applications.VR AND IMMERSIVE ARCHITECTUREImagine an artificial world that you can observe, walkthrough, reach out to touch objects and see everything around you respond in real-time.This is immersive virtual reality and these spaces are created using a combination of computer graphics, wireless tracking technology, headsets, HD projectors, polarized glass and more -- all working together to create interactive and real-life experiences.The world of 3D virtual design and engineering is a fast-growing field and there's some seriously forward thinking happening in these fields. BIG DATA AND SMART CITIESSmart cities, the cities of the future, are now becoming a reality.Although Big Data (data sets that are so big and complex that traditional data-processing application software is inadequate to deal with them) has a lot of buzz around it, we believe that in many ways it is still a relatively new and unexplored concept. However, its potential for human analysis is already obvious. This makes it a perfect and integral part of the planning and creation of smart cities.As the population grows and resources become scarcer, the efficient use of these limited goods becomes more importantSmart cities are a key factor in the consumption of materials and resourcesBuilt on -- and integrating with -- big data, the cities of the future are becoming a realization today ARCHITECTURE ROBOTS AND 3D PRINTERSThe way we make things has changed but will change even more drastically Robotics is making its way to the construction industryIt won't be long before we are assisting in designing to a construction process that involves assembly robots. Assisted robotics, in which a human and robot work together to direct the construction process, is also on the edge.SUSTAINABILITYSustainable architecture holds the key to an environmentally positive future. Only by living more economically with our resources can we hope to protect our environment and climate. The philosophy behind sustainable architecture is all about reducing wasteThis not only means physical waste but minimizing energy loss as well. By keeping the energy we consume within our buildings for as long as possible, we need less supply in the first placeUsing less energy to keep us comfortable means that we can become environmentally responsible and more resource efficient, which are both vital to reducing the effects of climate change.ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)AI enables producers to make sense of the overwhelming data that their factories, operations and consumers generate, and to transform that data into meaningful decisions.Today, 70 per cent of captured production data goes unused.Applying AI to the connectivity of the Internet of Things (IoT), producers are able to orchestrate and streamline business processes from desktops to machines, across department walls and tiers of suppliers.The most promising immediate opportunities for applying AI in production systems are in quality management, predictive maintenance and supply chain optimization.AI-enabled products will be a game-changer for value propositions addressed to customers, and producers must be ready to orchestrate the value networks required to deliver these.

Trending engineering branches which are highest pa...

Making a career in Engineering is not as easy as it sounds. Of course, the coursework is taxing, however, choosing a course is also difficult given the number of programs and fields to explore in engineering. There are multiple branches of engineering today and choosing one is dependent on a couple of factors that are important before you take the plunge. Most of us today live a very lavish lifestyle and want to have the best of everything. Is it that easy? It is if you’re raking in the big bucks. This happens to be one of the factors in choosing an engineering specialization. Some fields in engineering pay heavy and that is one of the reasons students choose to enter that field.Machines, physics, thermodynamics, space; if these are the things that fascinate you then finding the right career in engineering just got easier for you. The other factor that determines the choice of engineering field one enters is their personal interests. ‘Choose what you love and make it big’ is one of the mantras followed these days by not just the creative kinds but also the engineering students.So the two most important factors in determining the best career in engineering are Money and Interest.Petroleum Engineering: This is the branch of engineering that rakes in a lot of money for anyone who pursues this field. With a lot of demand for crude oil and natural gas, this field is expanding ten-fold. Petroleum engineers are one of the highest paid engineers not just in India but across the globe.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 4 - 4.5 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 20 - 40 lakhMajor job recruiters :Newman-Johnson-King, Inc.Shamrock RecruitingKLA IndustriesRandstadCameron CraigElectrical Engineering: This branch is one of the most demanding fields of engineering. As it deals with the use and application of electricity, electronics, electromagnetism, etc. its application is used worldwide and in the daily life. A career in electrical engineering will always be fruitful for anyone who decides to pursue it.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 1.5 - 3 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 10 - 15 lakhMajor job recruiters :VelSourceAbvolt Technologies IncorporatedJindal Steel & Power Ltd.ISRO GTROComputer Engineering: This integrates two fields of electrical engineering and computer science for the development of hardware and software. IT industry is in the boom for over a decade now and the importance of computer engineering is still at its peak. A lot of students opt for computer engineering as it pays well and has a lot of scopes both in India and abroad.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 5 - 15 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 20 - 40 lakhMajor job recruiters :TCSInfosysWiproHCLAccentureCognizantMicrosoftIBMAdobeGoogleAccentureCiscoOracleSun MicrosystemsYahooTech MahindraMahindra SatyamAerospace Engineering: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is the talk of the town in recent years. With a lot of research and development going into the exploration of other parts of the universe, a need for spacecraft and aircraft arises. This is taken care of by Aerospace Engineers. Aerospace Engineering is a discipline of engineering which deals with the development of spacecraft and aircraft. It is further divided into aeronautical and astronautical engineering which is interlinked. These engineers happen to be one of the highly paid people in the field of engineering.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 5 - 8 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 20 - 30 lakhMajor job recruiters : Some of the reputed recruiters of aeronautical engineering are as the following:HALDRDOISROAir IndiaIndian AirlinesHelicopter Corporation of IndiaDRDLNALADECivil Aviation DepartmentPrivate airlinesFlight clubsChemical Engineering: There are a lot of elements in nature which intrigue and amuse a person. Chemistry, Physics and Biology make up the field of Science. These are then used along with mathematics and economics to transform, produce, and use chemical elements, energy and materials. It is a risky yet exciting field and the need to find new mixtures and elements that are sustainable in nature has raised the demand of chemical engineers. Again, this happens to be one of the highly paid branches of engineering.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 4 - 8.5 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 12 - 30 lakhMajor job recruiters :Arofine Polymers LtdCentury Textiles and Industries LtdColour-Chem LtdDeepak Fertilizers and Petrochemicals Ltd.Materials Engineering: As can be gathered from the name itself, materials engineering deals with discovery and designing of new materials. There is a lot of scope for materials engineering graduates in terms of pay as well as opportunities.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 5 - 8 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 10 - 20 lakhMajor job recruiters :The top recruiters are mainly the metal manufacturing industries. Some of the top companies include the following:Steel Authority India Limited (SAIL)Tata SteelJindal SteelHindalco Industries LimitedNuclear Engineering: Someone who is fascinated by the physics of the universe, nuclear engineering is one field where the principles of nuclear physics are applied to the greatest extent. Fission and fusion of atomic and sub-atomic particles are studied in this branch of engineering. Another risky field, this branch provides a lot of scope in terms of pay and opportunity.Salary Structure (Experience-wise):Experience    Salary (per annum)1 - 2 years    Rs. 3 - 5 lakh10 - 12 years    Rs. 15 - 20 lakhMajor job recruiters :Some specialist recruitment agencies handle some vacancies. For opportunities see:FircroftMatchtechRoevin Engineering Recruitment

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